Many factors impinge on the population and influence the frequency of cultural variants. Selection-like transmission biases, natural selection, migration, drift, and invention can alter the distribution of cultural variants. Some people believe that culture has helped humans adapt to new environments and communicate with each other. For instance, a new skill might have been acquired from another society, resulting in faster cordage. While it is possible that human cultures evolved in a nonrandom manner, there are many factors that play a role in their evolution.
Whether or not humans inherited their culture depends on the type of culture they develop. Animals and humans display similar traits, but the defining features of human culture are unknown to us. Primatology does not provide any direct evidence of culture. Although it has been argued that human societies developed a distinct culture, a study of the genetic makeup of the animal kingdom has revealed that most species of humans exhibit cultural traits. However, the defining features of human culture are unknown to other animals, making it difficult to conclude that humans are the only species to exhibit such characteristics.
The Jourdain Hypothesis is based on the character from Molière’s play. If apes could associate individuals with techniques, would they be able to attribute these behaviors to the group members? The Jourdain Hypothesis proposes that the differences between human and animal cultures could be due to differences in metarepresentational processes. Future empirical research should focus on how animals mentally represent cultural knowledge.
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